FPSO Akpo; Source: Sapetro

Fresh oil, gas, and drilling plays shape global energy ecosystem

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ฉ๐จ๐ฐ๐ž๐ซ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ž๐ง๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ฒ ๐ฆ๐จ๐ฏ๐ž๐ฌ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ฐ๐จ๐ซ๐ฅ๐, ๐ฌ๐œ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฉ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ง๐ž๐ฐ ๐ฉ๐š๐ญ๐ก๐ฐ๐š๐ฒ๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ฅ๐ข๐ ๐ก๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฎ๐ฉ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐๐š๐ซ๐ค ๐œ๐จ๐ซ๐ง๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ. ๐‡๐จ๐ฐ๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ, ๐ข๐ญ ๐ข๐ฌ ๐ง๐จ ๐ฌ๐ž๐œ๐ซ๐ž๐ญ ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ญ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ž๐ง๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ฒ ๐ฅ๐š๐ง๐๐ฌ๐œ๐š๐ฉ๐ž ๐ข๐ฌ ๐ž๐ฏ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฏ๐ข๐ง๐ , ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐ž๐ฑ๐ฉ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐ฌ๐ž๐ญ ๐ข๐ง ๐ฌ๐ญ๐จ๐ง๐ž – ๐š๐ญ ๐ฅ๐ž๐š๐ฌ๐ญ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐ฌ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž – ๐ญ๐ก๐š๐ญ ๐ข๐ญ ๐ฐ๐ข๐ฅ๐ฅ ๐œ๐ก๐š๐ง๐ ๐ž ๐๐ซ๐š๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐›๐ฒ ๐ฆ๐ข๐-๐œ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฎ๐ซ๐ฒ ๐ญ๐จ ๐ฆ๐ž๐ž๐ญ ๐ ๐ฅ๐จ๐›๐š๐ฅ ๐ง๐ž๐ญ ๐ณ๐ž๐ซ๐จ ๐š๐ฌ๐ฉ๐ข๐ซ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ. ๐“๐ก๐ž ๐ซ๐ž๐ฌ๐ข๐ฅ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐จ๐ข๐ฅ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ ๐š๐ฌ ๐ข๐ง๐๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐ฒ ๐ข๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐Ÿ๐š๐œ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐š๐ฏ๐š๐ฅ๐š๐ง๐œ๐ก๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ž๐ฆ๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ž๐ง๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ฒ ๐ฌ๐จ๐ฎ๐ซ๐œ๐ž๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ ๐ซ๐จ๐ฐ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ฉ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ก ๐ญ๐จ๐ฐ๐š๐ซ๐ ๐œ๐ฅ๐ž๐š๐ง ๐ž๐ง๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐ฒ ๐ข๐ฌ ๐๐ž๐ฆ๐จ๐ง๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐š๐ญ๐ž๐ ๐›๐ฒ ๐š ๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ญ๐ข๐ญ๐ฎ๐๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ง๐ž๐ฐ ๐ฉ๐ซ๐จ๐ฃ๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐œ๐จ๐ฆ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐จ๐ง๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ž ๐š๐ง๐ ๐›๐ž๐ข๐ง๐  ๐๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ž๐ ๐จ๐ง ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ ๐ฅ๐จ๐›๐š๐ฅ ๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ ๐ž.

FPSO Akpo; Source: Sapetro

Despite this, fossil fuels are losing some ground to renewables, as green agendas get pushed forward. This is illustrated by the changes in the energy environment and fresh decarbonization moves made to implement state-of-the-art technologies. With the quarterly results season now upon us, the oil majors’ performance during 2023 brought multi-billion-dollar profits while spotlighting the dominant role oil, natural gas, and LNG still play in the energy mix. Over the past few days, several new developments have come to light.


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๐—ค๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—น๐˜† ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜‚๐—น๐˜๐˜€ ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ธ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ธ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—น & ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐˜€ ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฎ๐˜†๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜€’ ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜€

ExxonMobil and Chevron have raked in $36 billion and $21.37 billion, respectively during 2023. These profits present a steep fall compared to all-time high ones of $55.7 billion and $35.5 billion in 2022. This drop in the energy giantsโ€™ combined profits from $91.2 billion in 2022 to $57.37 billion in 2023 is driven by the downward trend in oil and gas prices. However, the batch of new acquisitions has bolstered the duo’s capacity to boost production.

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While Shellโ€™s annual profit fell by 29% on a year-over-year basis in 2023, the UK player still reported a profit of $28 billion. An analysis of the firmโ€™s highest-ever annual profit of almost $40 billion in 2022 leads to the conclusion that the decrease is driven by the shifts in global energy markets, putting the limelight on the downward trend in oil and gas prices and the upswing in LNG trading.

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BP saw a 50% fall in profit on a year-over-year basis, but the oil major still reported a profit of $13.8 billion for 2023. While working to transform itself from an International Oil Company (IOC) to an Integrated Energy Company (IEC), the UK player is following the goals set in its existing strategy, which revolves around resilient hydrocarbons, convenience and mobility, and low-carbon energy.

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While announcing โ€œrobustโ€ results in line with its objectives and confirming the relevance of its strategy in an uncertain environment, TotalEnergies, which is celebrating its 100th birthday in 2024, disclosed a net income of $21.4 billion for the full year 2023, a 4% increase compared to $20.5 billion for the full year 2022.

Patrick Pouyannรฉ, CEO of TotalEnergies, commented: โ€œIn an uncertain environment, TotalEnergiesโ€™ balanced transition strategy, which combines growth in Oil & Gas, in particular in LNG, and Integrated Power, delivered strong results in 2023, in line with its objectives.”

The 2023 results are perceived to be the โ€œhighest profitโ€ in the firmโ€™s history, according to Greenpeace. This performance is underpinned by the success of the LNG and electricity divisions. However, the overall results were affected by the drop in oil and gas prices and refining margins compared to the highs observed in 2022.

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๐—ฅ๐—ถ๐—ด ๐—บ๐—ผ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ผ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ฑ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—น๐—น๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ท๐—ผ๐—ฏ๐˜€

Serica Energy is setting the stage to embark on its four-well drilling campaign and well work-over program in the UK sector of the North Sea. These wells are scheduled to take about three months each to drill, meaning that drilling will continue into 2025.

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Shell picked a jack-up rig from Valaris Limited for a two-well drilling campaign in the North Sea. This entails an exploration well and an appraisal well, which will be drilled sequentially, with the contract and mobilization slated to begin in the June-July 2024 period.

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A new drilling assignment will enable Paratus’ jack-up rig to continue carrying out operations offshore Mexico for another year.

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One of Ocean Oilfield’s jack-up rigs has finished a plug and abandonment (P&A) program at an offshore field in the UAE for Sinochemโ€™s Atlantis (UAQ) Limited.

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A semi-submersible rig, owned by Valaris, has started drilling the first of eight wells on a Woodside Energy-operated gas field off the coast of Western Australia.

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TotalEnergies has sealed a deal to obtain a majority stake from Vantage Drilling in a drillship, which is currently working in Namibia. With its hook load capacity of 2.5 million pounds, offline capabilities, and managed pressure drilling equipment, this drillship is said to meet the French playerโ€™s envisaged future global needs.

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Diamond Offshore has expanded its contract backlog with a new job for one of its semi-submersible rigs with Serica Energy in the UK sector of the North Sea and an extension of the current assignment with BP for a drillship, which is working in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.

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As a result of a rig contract termination with Island Drilling, Trident Energy’s three-well infill drilling campaign offshore Equatorial Guinea has been put on ice until a new rig is secured for the job.

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Borr Drilling has managed to extend existing and secure new assignments for three premium jack-up rigs in its fleet with BW Energy in Africa, Valuera Energy in Asia, and an undisclosed operator in Southeast Asia.

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๐—ก๐—ฒ๐˜„ ๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—น & ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐˜€ ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ท๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜ ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐˜-๐˜‚๐—ฝ๐˜€

CNOOC brought on stream an oilfield secondary adjustment and development project, which is located in Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea. This project will have 118 development wells, including 81 production wells and 37 water injection wells. According to the Chinese player, the project has been developed relying on an onshore power supply. As a result, it will consume green electricity generated onshore, enabling the green and low-carbon development of offshore oil and gas resources.

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TotalEnergies has started production from a field, which has been tied to an existing FPSO operating offshore Nigeria. The field is expected to add 14,000 barrels of condensate production per day, to be followed by up to 4 million cubic meters of gas per day by 2028.

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๐—š๐—ฒ๐˜๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ด๐—ป๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐˜€

Wood’s latest multi-million-dollar contract extension is for the delivery of maintenance and modification solutions to optimize wellhead platforms and floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) unit located at a field off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is said to be Equinorโ€™s largest operated field outside Norway.

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An RM 400 million ($84.67 million) contract for a new MOPU is expected to provide long-term financial visibility to T7 Global Berhad upon first oil. This MOPU is destined to move to an oil field in the Gulf of Thailand soon, where it will be leased to the operator of the field, Valeura Energy.

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After QatarEnergy announced the award of four multi-billion-dollar EPCI contract packages to multiple players, McDermott International confirmed two new assignments with North Oil Company, a joint venture between QatarEnergy (70%) and TotalEnergies (30%), related to the delivery of the EPCIC scope for the development of the next phase of the largest oil field off the coast of Qatar.

๐‘๐ž๐š๐ ๐ฆ๐จ๐ซ๐ž:

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MODEC hired Axess Group on a long-term inspection contract related to its recently converted FPSO, which will work on the Woodside Energy-operated offshore oil development project in Senegal, Africa.

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With Ocean Installer pooling resources with ALP Maritime Services, this puts three new vessels at the firm’s disposal, which will be used to support its FPSO towing and hook-up assignments.

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As a result of a new five-year deal, EthosEnergy will become Harbour Energyโ€™s primary service provider for the maintenance and support of a fleet of light industrial gas turbines across three production assets in the UK North Sea: the Greater Britannia AreaJ-AreaAELECatcher, and Tolmount areas.

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MODEC has held a ceremony to mark the beginning of the construction stage for an FPSO vessel, which is destined to work on ExxonMobilโ€™s fifth oil development in the Stabroek block offshore Guyana. The start-up of the $12.7 billion development is targeted in 2026.

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In the meantime, BW Offshore has tucked in new construction milestones under its belt for an FPSO, which is expected to be deployed on a Santos-operated natural gas field offshore Australia. This development is on track for the first gas in H1 2025 and the contract for the initial production period of 15 years is valued at $4.6 billion.

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Altera Infrastructure has hired DOF Group to install a cylindrical FPSO and an FSO at Eniโ€™s oil and gas development offshore Cรดte dโ€™Ivoire, Africa. The Norwegian player plans to mobilize its 2011-built anchor handling vessel to complete part of its scope of work encompassed in this deal, which entails project management, engineering, transportation, installation, and hook-up of floating units in the field.

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๐—˜๐˜…๐—ฝ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—น & ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐˜€ ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ผ๐˜€ ๐˜„๐—ถ๐˜๐—ต ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜„ ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—พ๐˜‚๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€

Longboat JAPEX has wrapped up the acquisition of an interest in an offshore license, allowing it to enrich its portfolio with initial producing assets offshore Norway.

๐’๐ž๐ž ๐ฆ๐จ๐ซ๐ž:

In addition, the company brought to an end its sale of partial interests in two exploration licenses on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) to Norwayโ€™s Concedo.

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Eni and Vรฅr Energi have added new assets to their portfolios by completing the acquisition of Neptune Energyโ€™s oil and gas assets – aside from the firmโ€™s German portfolio – for a total aggregate enterprise price of $4.9 billion.

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DNO is in the process of expanding its North Sea portfolio with the acquisition of ONE-Dyas’s interest in a Shell-operated gas field on the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS).

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Deltic Energy has taken steps to sell a partial stake in a Shell-operated license, containing a prospect, which is due to be drilled later this year with Valaris Limited’s jack-up rig. Dana Petroleum has decided to snap up this asset and join the planned hydrocarbon exploration game once drilling activities begin.

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TotalEnergies is in the process of enlarging its overall gas portfolio with more assets offshore Malaysia, thanks to a deal with OMV, which will enable the French player to obtain a stake in SapuraOMV Upstream, a 50:50 joint venture between Sapura Energy and the Austrian firm. The oil majorโ€™s portfolio enhancement is expected to come with a total price tag of $903 million.

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Petrobras has come back to Africaโ€™s oil and gas exploration arena, thanks to the acquisition of interests in three Shell-operated exploration blocks located off the coast of Sรฃo Tomรฉ and Prรญncipe.

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๐—จ๐—ž ๐—ด๐—ผ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ฎ๐˜„๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐˜€๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ

The UK has revealed its second tranche of license awards from 115 applications in its 33rd offshore oil and gas licensing round. Due to this, the total number of licenses awarded so far has climbed to 51. The latest batch brought 24 new licenses to 17 oil and gas players – including Shell, Equinor, BP, TotalEnergies, and NEO – in the North Sea and West of Shetland areas.

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Meanwhile, a license extension has been secured offshore Cameroon. With this out of the way, the ongoing discussions regarding the funding of Tower Resources’ upcoming drilling program are expected to be wrapped up in due time. The drilling campaign will be done with one of Borr Drilling’s jack-up rigs.

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๐—ช๐—ผ๐—ผ๐—ฑ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฎ๐˜† ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ฆ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜๐—ผ๐˜€ ๐—ฏ๐˜‚๐˜ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐˜๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ธ๐˜€ ๐—ณ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ด๐—ต

While the news that Woodside and Santos are abandoning merger talks may be shocking to some, others have expected this outcome all along. These discussions could have brought an A$85.7 billion (about $55.9 billion) merger to life, creating an Australian gas market giant, had they been successful.

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๐—˜๐—บ๐—ฏ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ด๐˜† ๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—น๐—ผ๐˜„-๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ณ๐˜‚๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐—ฒ

Following the endorsement of the Oil & Gas Decarbonization Charter at COP28, TotalEnergies penned cooperation agreements with Petrobras, SOCAR, Sonangol, and NNPCL to carry out methane detection and measurement campaigns using its Airborne Ultralight Spectrometer for Environmental Applications (AUSEA) technology on oil and gas facilities in Brazil, Azerbaijan, Angola, and Nigeria. The French oil major has now inked a similar agreement with India’s Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) to share its AUSEA technology in a bid to pivot the whole industry towards zero methane emissions by 2030.

After halving its methane emissions from its operated sites between 2010 and 2020, TotalEnergies set ambitious targets to step up its efforts and slash methane emissions by a further 50% by 2025 โ€“ with the ambition to reach this target a year early, in 2024 – and by 80% in 2030, compared to 2020. The company is also committed to promoting the United Nations Oil and Gas Methane Partnership (OGMP 2.0) framework with other oil companies.

Pouyanne noted: โ€œOur industryโ€™s priority in the fight against climate change is to slash methane emissions from operations. Aiming for zero methane emissions by 2030 is our collective ambition as signatories of the OGDC at COP28. We are pleased to collaborate and make our AUSEA technology available to ONGC, in India, to detect, measure and eventually reduce methane emissions on their own assets.”

๐‹๐ž๐š๐ซ๐ง ๐ฆ๐จ๐ซ๐ž:

As the decarbonization race continues to gain speed, many energy transition blueprints are making the rounds, but the CEO of Qatarโ€™s state-owned energy giant QatarEnergy, is adamant that a balancing act between energy security, affordability, and sustainability will allow countries across the globe to transform their energy system and reach net zero goals.

โ€œWe need a balance between energy security, affordability, and sustainability for an effective transition,โ€ underlined Saad Sherida Al-Kaabi, Qatarโ€™s Minister of State for Energy Affairs and President and CEO of QatarEnergy while bearing in mind the current strife and uncertainty over firing the energy transition engine on all cylinders.

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๐—”๐——๐—ฉ๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—ง๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—˜ ๐—ข๐—ก ๐—ข๐—™๐—™๐—ฆ๐—›๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—˜ ๐—˜๐—ก๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—š๐—ฌ

๐——๐—ผ ๐˜†๐—ผ๐˜‚ ๐˜„๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—ด๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ฎ๐˜๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜†๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜ ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ ๐—บ๐—ผ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ? ๐—Ÿ๐—ผ๐—ผ๐—ธ ๐—ป๐—ผ ๐—ณ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐—ข๐—ณ๐—ณ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—˜๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ด๐˜†! ๐—ข๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ถ๐˜€ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ ๐—ฏ๐˜† ๐˜๐—ต๐—ผ๐˜‚๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—น๐˜€ ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐—ฑ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ถ๐—น & ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐˜€, ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ฒ, ๐—ผ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐˜„๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ, ๐—ด๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ป ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ, ๐—ต๐˜†๐—ฑ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐—ป, ๐˜€๐˜‚๐—ฏ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฎ, ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ด๐˜†, ๐—ฎ๐—น๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐˜‚๐—ฒ๐—น๐˜€, ๐˜€๐—ต๐—ถ๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด, ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ผ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐˜€๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฎ ๐—ฑ๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐—น๐˜† ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜€.

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